The goal of the proposed research is twofold. On the one hand to carry on the stratigraphical excavation (on-going since 1985) over a large area on the southern slope of the Palatine, between the Imperial Palace and the Circus Maximus, on the other hand to begin new investigations on the northest corner of the Hill facing the Colosseum valley, aiming at the reconstruction of the changing urban landscapes in these parts of the ancient city since the Iron Age (10th c. b.c.e.) to Renaissance (16th c.). It is a very relevant topographical context of high heuristic potential. Such a continuity of activities and site occupation has confirmed this part of the ancient city an extremely intriguing case study, from an archaeological point of view, and an ideal sample to test and develop methods and strategies of collection and processing archaeological, architectural and topographical data over a large time span. The evidence collected up to now allowed ancient historians and scholars of antiquity as well to re-think problems related to the origins of the city and the history of roman institutions. It may be enough to mention the discovery of the Palatine Wall dating to 775-750 b.c.e., rebuilt until 530 b.c.e ca. and partially preserved as a marker in later urban landscape; the sanctuary of Vesta (mid 8th c. b.c.e.-Late Antiquity); royal and high priests (rex sacrorum and pontifex) residences (mid 8th c. b.c.e.-64 c.e.); a sanctuary (mid 8th c. b.c.e.-64 c.e.) to be possibly identified with the sanctuary of Jupiter Stator; the sanctuary of the Curiae Veteres; a section of the pre- and proto-urban settlement (11th-mid 8th c. b.c.e.) never attested over such a large area in Rome until now. Attention will be paid to historical documents (e.g. inscriptions), different classes of artefacts, biological remains in order to increase our knowledge of society, mass and market productions, building decoration as part of visual art, building techniques, alimentary habits and so forth.